Introduction and key legislation

The credit industry is governed by legislation, common law, and industry codes of conduct all of which contain protections for consumers of financial products and services.


Credit usually involves someone borrowing money and agreeing to pay it back later with interest, fees or charges. Common forms of credit are home loans, credit cards, store cards and accounts, personal loans and pay-day loans.

Other financial products or services that may be protected by Australian consumer credit laws include lease contracts for the supply of goods, mortgages, guarantees, terms contracts for the sale of land and pawn broking contracts.

Consumer protections under Australian Credit Law

The key consumer credit legislation is the National Consumer Credit Protection Act 2009 (Cth) (“NCCP Act”), the National Consumer Credit Protection Regulations 2010 (Cth) (“NCCP Regulations”) and the National Credit Code (NCC).

The NCC is very similar to the Uniform Credit Code (“Old Code”), which was the main consumer credit law before 1 July 2010. The Old Code commenced on 1 November 1996 and still has limited application to some contracts entered into before the NCC commenced (for discussion of transitional arrangements, seeWhat credit contracts are regulated by the NCC?”).

In addition, protections in the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 (Cth) relating to misleading or deceptive conduct, unconscionable conduct and unfair contract terms, may also assist consumers of credit (see Consumer protection laws).

Guidance on credit law can be found in the various regulatory guides published by the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) (see

Credit providers may also have obligations under one or more codes of conduct. These include the:

Code of Banking Practice (see “Code of Banking Practice” in Unauthorised transactions and ePayments Code, for amendments that commenced on 1 February 2014). The Code of Banking Practice has been held to form part of the contract between a bank and customer (see National Australia Bank Ltd v Rice [2015] VSC 10);

Mortgage and Finance Association of Australia Code of Practice; and

Customer Owned Banking Code of Practice (prior to 1 January 2014 the Mutual Banking Code of Practice applied).

The Australian Financial Complaints Authority (AFCA) (seeContacts”) provides consumers and small businesses with fair, free and independent dispute resolution for financial complaints. AFCA considers fairness, good industry practice and industry codes, as well as legal principles, in determining disputes (see Unauthorised transactions and ePayments Code).

Readers of this chapter may also be assisted by:

Are you in debt?;

Mortgages, credit cards and other finance products;

Buying or selling a house;

Buying a car;

How contract law works, Consumer protection laws, Consumer guarantees, Taking action as a consumer, on consumers and contracts.