A bankrupt person must make some payments to the trustee out of their income once the income is above a certain level, referred to as the ‘actual Income threshold’.
Contributions to trustee
Bankrupts who earn above a certain amount must make some payments (contributions) from their income to their trustee.
The Bankruptcy Act defines income broadly. Examples include a pension paid from a superannuation fund and fringe benefits such as subsidised rent or use of a company car.
The net income that a bankrupt can earn before being required to make contributions is called the actual income threshold amount (AITA). The AITA for a bankrupt with no dependants as at 26 April 2018 was $56 674.80 net per year (indexed). The bankrupt’s AITA is made up of all income derived during the assessment period, less any income tax payable and less (with certain limits) any amount due for child support, plus any income tax refunds and plus relevant percentage increases for dependants’ income. AFSA website’s (at www.afsa.gov.au) keeps an updated table showing the current AITA amounts.
If the bankrupt has one dependant, their income threshold is increased approximately by 18 per cent; by 27 per cent for two dependants, by 32 per cent for three, by 34 per cent for four, and by 36 per cent for more than four dependants.
Section 139K defines a dependant as someone who lives with the bankrupt, is wholly or partly dependent on the bankrupt and does not earn more than the “prescribed amount”. The current prescribed amount is $3596 (indexed).
A bankrupt has one child who is wholly dependent. The bankrupt’s net income is $69 425.60 per year. The bankrupt’s actual income threshold = $66 876.26. The bankrupt’s income exceeds their actual income threshold by $2549.34, so the bankrupt must contribute 50 per cent, i.e. $1274.67, to the trustee in that year.
Applying to vary income contributions on hardship grounds
The bankrupt can apply in writing to the trustee to have their income contribution varied on the basis of hardship, for reasons such as ongoing medical expenses, the need to pay for child care in order to work, or the expense of paying for private rental accommodation (s 139T).
If the bankrupt is not happy with the trustee’s response, or if the trustee does not make a decision after 30 days, the bankrupt can:
• request the Inspector-General to review the trustee’s decision, and apply to the AAT if not satisfied with the Inspector-General’s decision; or
• apply directly to the AAT for a review of the decision if the Inspector-General refuses a request to review the decision (s 139ZF).
See Milsom & Official Receiver in Bankruptcy  AATA 275 (16 March 2004) for an example of a successful application to the AAT by a bankrupt.
After the date of bankruptcy, a bankrupt must give the trustee a statement of income (with supporting documents) at the end of each 12-month period. A trustee can file an objection to the bankrupt’s discharge from bankruptcy if the bankrupt fails to provide the statements of income.
If (and only if) a bankrupt fails to pay the whole of their income contribution, or an instalment of their contribution, at or before the time it becomes payable, the trustee may determine that the “supervised account regime” applies to the bankrupt (s 139ZIC). The supervised account regime requires the bankrupt to open an account (the supervised account) into which all of their income must be deposited. If the bankrupt receives their income by cash (the trustee must consent to this form of income) or cheque, they must deposit it into the supervised account within five days of its receipt (s 139ZIF).
Upon determining that the supervised account regime applies to a bankrupt, the trustee is required to provide the bankrupt with a written notice requiring the bankrupt to open a supervised account within the time specified in the notice (being a minimum of 10 working days after the notice is given to the bankrupt). The supervised account must comply with certain requirements set out in section 139ZIE.
In general, a bankrupt to whom the supervised account regime applies, must not make withdrawals from the supervised account without the trustee’s consent (s 139ZIG). Accordingly, a bankrupt must reach an agreement with the trustee about the amount that may be withdrawn from the supervised account for living expenses.
A bankrupt may be liable to criminal penalties if they breach the requirements of the supervised account regime.
In accordance with the meaning of “reviewable decision” in section 139ZIB, certain decisions of the trustee in relation to the supervised account regime are reviewable by the Inspector-General and/or the AAT (ss 139ZIO, 139ZIT). These include the decision to subject a bankrupt to the supervised account regime and the decision to withhold consent in relation to the bankrupt making a withdrawal from the supervised account.